In the latest move to inflame the racially tinged issue ahead of November’s congressional and
state elections, Republican senators say they intend to call hearings on overturning the 14th amendment to the constitution, which grants citizenship to anyone born in the US. Leading Republicans have denounced the provision as outdated, saying it encourages “invasion by birth canal” in which illegal immigrants smuggle themselves into the US to have “anchor babies”.
The change is being pushed by the Republican whip in the Senate, John Kyl, and senator Lindsey Graham, who said that “birthright citizenship is a mistake”.
The 14th amendment was adopted in 1868 after the civil war to block laws that prevented former slaves from becoming US citizens. Reform must be approved by two-thirds of both houses of Congress and ratified by three-quarters of US states or by calling a convention by the states.
Guardian.co.uk. 3 August 2010. Adaptado.
Baseando-se nas informações fornecidas pelo texto, responda às questões a seguir:
a)O que a 14ª emenda à Constituição dos Estados Unidos assegura e por que ela foi adotada?
b) Qual é a questão polêmica apresentada no texto com relação aos imigrantes?
Although the human brain has an impressive amount of storage space for memories, it does not keep each one indefinitely. We tend to forget memories that are similar to one another – remembering instead more novel events or information. In fact, forgetting is important because it makes it easier to recall new memories.
Although forgetting can be annoying, it sometimes helps us learn. In 2007 researchers at Columbia University showed that genetically modified mice that cannot generate new neurons in the hippocampus – a brain area involved in storing memories – do better on memory tasks than mice that create new neurons as usual. Learning new information does not require new neurons; it simply requires that existing neurons connect in new ways.
Yet storing a memory does require the ability to sprout new neurons. Thus, the genetically modified mice could still learn new information, like the most recent location of food in the maze, but had no old memories of where food was hidden interfering with their most recent one. Forgetting, then, helps us remember.
Scientific American, July 13, 2010. Adaptado.
Baseando-se no texto, responda:
a)Qual é a importância do esquecimento para o cérebro humano?
b) No experimento mencionado no texto, por que os ratos geneticamente modificados aprenderam novas informações com mais facilidade que os outros ratos?